Indonesian doesn’t change the form of verb to show tenses. It uses “sudah & telah” to describe present, present continuous, past, and present participle tenses. In general sudah is the synonym of telah. However sudah contains meaning “finish” but telah. For example. To answer “Have you finish your home work?” just “sudah” or you can say “telah selesai” “telah” itself doesn’t bear “finish” Both “telah & sudah” can be used as an adverb or as an auxiliary verb. See the following usage:
sudah: adv already |Pada waktu itu orang sudah mengosongkat desa itu At that time people already emptied the village.
sudah: v /aux.v
- |to form present tense or present participle| Dia sudah tidur She is sleeping. Saya sudah lapar I’m hungry.
- 2 to form past tense or past participle| Dia sudah pindah setahun lalu. He moved last year. Saya sudah disini sejak tadi pagi I’ve been here since this Apa kamu sudah makan siang? Have you had your lunch?
- 3 |to indicate that sth has been at a certain condition, level, or quality| Apa ini sudah cukup? Is this enough? Apa kamu sudah tahu hal itu Have you known that?
- 4 how, what |implicitly refer to the common understanding of sth| Sudah bagaimana? How is it? Sudah berapa? What is the total?
- other form:
kesudahan: noun 1 final end Kesudahan pertandingan itu mengecewakan The final end of the fight was disappointed. 2 conclusion, finishing, accomplishment.
menyudahi: verb conclude, finish, accomplish
sesudah1: adv after, later. |later than someone or something else| Saya tiba pukul 4:00. dan dia satu jam sesudah itu. I arrived at 4:00 p.m, and he did an hour after
sesudah2: prep. Sesudah nama saya baru nama kamu dalam daftar itu. After my name than your name on the list.